Angkor Wat

Angkor wat is located about 7 kilometers of Siem Reap provincial town along komai or Charles De Gaul Road. The temple was built in the early 12th century during the region of king Suryavarman II (AD 1113-1150) is unrivaled in tis beauty and state of preservation. It is an expression of Khmer art at its highest points of development.

Some believed Angkor Wat was designed by Divakarapandita, the chief adviser and minister of the King, dedicating to Vishnu Brahmanism. The Khmers attribute the building of Angkor wat to the divine architect Visvakarman. There has been considerable debate amongst scholars as to whether Angkor wat was built as a temple or a tomb.

Angkor wat, according to Coedes, is areplica of the universe in stone and represents an earthly model of the comic world. The central tower rises from the center of the monument symbolizing the mythical Mount Meru. Situated at the center of the universe. Its five towers correspond to the peaks of Meru; the outer wall to the mountains at the edge of the world; and the surrounding moat to the oceans beyond.Siem-Reap-2

Originally, the temple was called Prasat Paramavishnuloka. However, the evolution of the name Angkor wat can be drawn by history. The first Proof existed in the 16th century,

When the temple became a well-known Buddhist place. According to a 16th century inscription, its name was preh Mohanokor Indrabrat Preah Visnuloka. In a 17th century inscription, it was called Indrabrabtnokor Sreisodhara Visnuloka. Angkor wat is a simple name to refer to this holy place. Khmer people, especially those living in and around Siem Reap, often refer to Angkor Toch . However, European authors decided on a common name, Angkor Wat. Nevertheless, its original name has not been forgotten and is known by many people.

Angkor Wat covers a rectangular area of about 200 hectares defined by a laterite rampart which is surrounded by a moat that is 200 meters wide. The perimeter of the rampart measures 5.5 kilometers. The moat is crossed by a huge causeway built of sandstone blocks 250 meters long and 12 meters wide. The temple is 65 meters high. With its massive size and spendor, Angkor Wat was believed to have been built by the gods rather than by man.

The temple begins with a sandstone terrace in the shape of a cross. Giant stone lions on each side of the terrace guard the monument. End of the causeways at the gopura with three towers of varying heights, of which much of the upper sections have collapsed. A long, covered gallery with square columns and a vaulted roof extends along the moat to the left and right of the gopura.

The causeway leads to the cruciform gopura or entry tower. The gateways at ground level on each end of the gallery

Probably served as passages for elephants, horses and carts, whereas the other entrances are accessed by steps and lead onto the central promenade. From the central entrance turn right and walk along the columned gallery coming to the end, where the quality of carving and intricacy of decoration on the false door is of exceptional beauty.

Continue eastward along the raised walkway of equally imposing proportions which is 350 meters long and 9 meters wide. A low balustrade formed by short columns supporting the scaly body of the naga borders each side. Along the causeway, the ceremonial stairs with platforms always in pairs to the left and the right. The naga balustrade also flames the stairs. There are two buildings, so-called libraries are two ponds, which are 65 meters long and 50 meters wide, ingeniously placed to capture the reflection of the towers in the water. The one on the left is filled with water, whereas the other one is usually dry.

The architectural triumph on the walkway is the cruciformshaped terrace of honor, just in front of the principle gopura of Angkor Wat. Ritual dance were performed on this terrace and it may also have been where the king viewed processions and received foreign dignitaries. From the top of this terrace there is a fine view of the famous galleries of bas-reliefs on the first platform level.Siem-Reap-3

The cross-shaped galleries provide the link between the first and second levels. The Unique architectural design consists of covered cruciform-shaped galleries with square columns forming four courtyards each with paved basins and steps. Many of the pillars in the galleries are two libraries of the north and south galleries are two libraries of similar form, but smaller than the ones along the entrance causeway. There is a good view of the upper level of Angkor Wat from the northern one.

The gallery of 1,000 Buddhas, on the right, once contained many images dating from the period when Angkor Wat was Buddhist, but only a few of these figures remain today. The Hall of Echoes, on the left, is so named because of its unusual acoustic. Return to the center of the cruciform – shaped galleries and continue walking eastward toward the central towers. The outer wall of the gallery of the second level, closet, is solid and undecorated, probably to create an environment for meditation by the priests and the king. The starkness of the exterior of the second level gallery is offset by the decoration of the interior. Over 1,500 apsaras line the walls of the gallery, offering endless visual the spiritual enchantment.

Only the king and the high priest were allowed on the upper or third level of Angkor Wat. This level lacks the stately covered galleries of the other two, but as the base of the five central towers, one of which contains the most sacred image of the temple, it has an equally important role in the architectural scheme. Like all Angkor Wat, the statistics of this level are imposing. The square base is 60 meters long, 13 maters high, and rise over 40 meters above the second level. Twelve sets of stairs with 40 steps each-one in the center of each side and two at the corners-ascend at a 70-degree angle diving access to the topmost level.

The central sanctuary soars 42 meters above the upper level. Its height is enhanced by a tiered plinth. This central sanctuary originally had four porches opening to the cardinal direction and sheltered a statue of Vishnu. Today it is possible to make an offering to a modern image of the Buddha and light a candle in this sacred inner sanctum. The central core of the temple was walled up some time after the sacking of Angkor in the middle of the 15 century. Nearly 500 years later French archaeologists discovered a vertical shaft 27 meters deep with a hoard of gold objects at its base.

Angkor Wat Galleries of Bas-reliefs

The galleries of bas-reliefs, surrounding the level of Angkor Wat, contain 1,200 square meters of sandstone carving. The bas-reliefs are divided into eight sections, two panels flanking each of the four central entrance and additional scenes in each pavilion at the north and south corners of the west gallery. The scenes on the base-reliefs run horizontally, from left to right, in a massive expanse along walls. Sometimes decorated borders are added. The scenes are arranged in one of two ways: either without any deliberate attempt to separate the scenes; or in registers which are sometimes superimposed on one another.

As the bas-relief at Angkor Wat were designed for viewing from left to right, the visitors should follow this convention for maximum appreciation. Enter the gallery of bas-reliefs at the middle of the west side, turn right into the gallery and continue walking counter-clockwise. Visitors who start from another point should keep the monument on their left.

West gallery (South): Battle of KuruKshetra (Scene from the epic Mahabharata)
Corner Pavilion (Southwest): Scene from the epic Ream Ke.
South Gallery (West): Army of King Suryavarman II.
South Gallery (East): Judgment by Yama / Heaven and Hell
East Gallery (South): Churning of the Ocean of Milk.
East Gallery (Near the Entrance): Inscription.
East Gallery (North): Victory of Vishnu over the Demons.
North Gallery (East): Victory of Krishna over Bana.
North Gallery (West) Battle between the Gods and the Demons.
Corner Pavilion (Northwest): Scene from the epic Ream Ke
West Gallery (North): Battle of Lanka (Scene from the epic Ream Ke).
Temple between Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom Siem-Reap-4
Ta Prohm Kil Temple

Ta Prohm Kil temple is located on the way from Angkor Wat to Angkor Thom, about 300 meters from the west entry gate of Angkor Wat. The chapel made of sandstone that faces east. This temple was built in the late 12 century, during the reign of king Jayavarman VII. According to an inscription found in 1928, the chapel of 102 hospitals built by King Javavarman VII has the same form.

Phnom Ba Kheng Temple

Phnom Ba Kheng temple was built on a natural hill. Commonly referred to as temple-mountain because it is an earthly facsimile of Mount Meru, it is located on the left side of the road from Angkor Wat to Angkor Thom and attracts scores of tourists who come to watch the sunset or sunrise. The temple was cut from the rock that formed the natural hill and faced with sandstone in the late 9 and early 10 centuries, during the reign of King Yasovarman 1(AD 889-910), dedicating to Shiva Brahmanism.

Phnom Ba Kheng is 65 meters high and the temple has 109 towers. Phnom Ba Kheng temple was a replica of Mount Meru and the number of towers suggests a cosmic symbolism. The seven level- ground, five tiers, upper terrace of the monument represents the seven heavens of Indra in Brahmanism mythology.Siem-Reap-5

The temple must have been a spectacular site in its entirety because originally 108 towers were evenly spaced around the tiers with yet another one, the central sanctuary, at the apex of them all. Today, however, most of these towers have collapsed. Beside the central sanctuary, there were 4 towers on the upper terrace, 12 on each of the 5 level of the platform, and another 44 towers around the base. The brick towers on the different levels represent the 12-year cycle of the animal zodiac. It is also possible that the numerology of the 108 towers symbolizes the 4 lunar phases with 27 days in each phase. The arrangement allows for only 33 of the towers to be seen from each side, a figure that corresponds with the number of Brahmanism deities.

At the top of the hill, Phnom Ba Kheng is set on a tiered platform of five levels. There are stairways of a very steep gradient on all four sides. Seated lions flank the step at each of the five levels. The complex is surrounded by a laterite rampart with gopuras. Beyond there is a small structure to north with sandstone pillars in which there are two lingams. A modern footprint of the Buddha is in the center of the path. Two libraries are opening only to the west on either side of the part.

At the top most platforms of 76 meters square and 13 meters high, five towers are arranged in quincunx. The central tower once contained the lingam on pedestals and open on two sides. The central sanctuary is decorated with female divinities set in niches at the corner of the temple which have delicately carved of foliage above; the pilasters are finely worked and have raised interlacing of figurines. The makaras on the tympanums are lively and strongly executed. The decoration above the door is well preserved showing a panel of foliated cusps with the heads of 33 gods. An inscription is visible on the west side of the north door of the central sanctuary.

According to an inscription on the temple, phnom Ba kheng was the center of the city of Yasodharapura. This fact was verified in the late 9th century with the discovery of an old rampart. This temple was originally called Yasodharakiri. Late it was known as Phnom Kandal. It might have been called Phnom Kandal because it was built in the center of the city Yasoharapura or because it is between Phnom Bok and Phnom Krom. Today visitors refer to the temple as Phnom Bak Kheng. This name was found in an inscription on the temple in the 16th century.

Siem-Reap-6Baksei Cham Krong Temple

Basei Cham Krong temple is located about 150 meters north of Phnom Bak Kheng. The temple was perhaps begun construction by King Harshavarman I (AD 910-944) and completed by King Rajendravarman (AD 944-968), dedicating Shiva Brahmanism. Inscriptions on the door reveal the date of the temple and mention a golden image of Shiva amd the mythical founder of the Khmer civilization.

The temple is a simple plan with a single tower on top of the square, four tiered laterite platform. Three levels of the base are undecorated, but the top platform has horizontal molding around it that sets off the sanctuary. A square,

The bird who shelters under it wings. The name of the temple derives from a legend in which the king field during an attack on Angkor and was saved from being caught by the enemy when a large eagle swooped down and spread its wings to shelter him.

Central brick tower stands on a sandstone base shaped like a cone. It has one day opening to the east with three false doors on the other sides, which are in remarkably good condition. Most of the lintels are in poor condition, but, on the east, Indra riding a three headed elephant is till recognizable and is finely carved. The interior of the tower has a sunken floor and a corbelled vault.

Rorng Ramong Temple

Rorng Romong temple is southwest of Phnom Bak Kheng. A small brick temple, the upper part has been lost over time. According to local residents, the temple’s name comes from the traditional Khmer game Romong. Some people, how-ever, and no one has ever seen a picture of it.


Thma Bay Kaek Temple

Thma Bay Kaek temple is located near the south moat of Angkor Thom and north of Baksei Cham Krong temple, about 125 meters from the entrance to Angkor Thom. This temple was built in the 10th century to worship Brahmanism. No one knows who build the temple.

Bey Temple

Bey temple is located west of Thma Bay Ka Ek temple. Constructed of brick in the 10th century, dedicating to Shiva Brahmanism, it has three towers and faces east. The original name of the temple is unknown. However, because it has three towers, it is called Bey temple.

Angkor Thom

Angkor Thom. The last capital of Angkor period (AD 802-1432) until the 15th century, was indeed a Great city as it name implies, and it served as the religious and administrative center of the vast and powerful Khmer Empire. The capital of King Jayavarman VII16 (AD 1181-1220), Angkor Thom is a microsm of the universe divided into tour parts by the main axes. Bayon temple stands as the symbolic link between heaven and earth. The wall enclosing the city of Angkor Thom represents the stone wall around the universe and the mountain ranges around Meru. The surrounding moat suggests the cosmic ocean. This symbolism is reinforced by the presence of god Intra on his mount. The three headed elephant.

Angkor Thom is enclosed by an 8-meter-high laterite rampart that is laid out on a square gird of 3 kilometers long on each side. A moat with a width of 100 meters surrounds the outer wall. The City is accessed along five great causeways one in each cardinal direction-Death Gate (east), Dei ChhnangGate (north), Takao Gate (west), and Tonle Om Gate(south)-plus an additional Victory Gate on the east aligned with Terraces of the Elephants and the Leper King. A tall gopura distinguished by a superstructure of four faces bisects the wall in the center of each side.Siem-Reap-8

Four small temples, all called Chhrungtemple, stand at each corner of the wall around the city of Angkor Thom. Made pf sandstone and designed in a cross plan, the temple build by King Jayavarman VII to worship Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. An inscription tells about its construction.

The stone causeways across the broad moat surrounding Angkor Thom with their unique gopura are one of the great sights at Angkor, never ceasing to fill visitors with wonder. The causeway leading to the gopuras are flanked by a row of 54 stone figures on each side-goods on the left and demons on the right-to make a total of 108 mythical beings guarding each of the five approaches to the city of Angkor Thom. The demons have a grimacing expression and wear a military headdress, whereas the gods look serene with their almond shaped eyes and conical headdresses. The gods and demons hold the scaly body of a naga on their knees. This composition defines the full length of the causeway. At the beginning of the causeway, the naga spreads its nine heads in the shape of a fan.

The five sandstone gopuras rise 23 meters to the sky and is crowned with four heads; one facing each cardinal direction. At the best of each gate are finely modeled elephants with three heads. Their trunks are plucking lotus flowers, in theory out of the moat. The god Indra sites at the center of the elephant with his consorts on each side. He hold a thunderbolt in his lower left hand. Stand in the center of the gopura, visitors will see a sentry box on each side. Also remains of wooden crossbeams are still visible in some of the gopura, beneath the gopura visitor can see the corbelled arch, a hallmark of Khmer architecture.

Bayon TempleSiem-Reap-9

The Bayon temple is located in the center of Angkor Thom. The temple is one of the most popular sites in the Angkor complex. It was built in the late 12th and early 13th centuries by King Jayavarman VII. The architectural composition of the Bayon exudes grandness in very aspect. Over 200 large faces caved on the 54 towers give this temple its majestic character, which at that time represents the 54 province in Cambodia. The iconography of the four faces has been widely debated by scholars and some think they represent the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, in keeping with the Buddhist character of the temple, it is generally accepted that the four faces on each of the towers are images of King Jayavarman VII and signify the omnipresence of the King.

The plan of the Bayon is presented on three separate levels. The first and second levels contain galleries featuring the bas-reliefs. A 16-sided central sanctuary dominates the third level, which is cruciform in plan. Despite this seemingly simple plan, the layout of the Bayon is complex due to later additions, a maze of galleries, passages and steps, connected in a way that makes the levels practically indistinguishable and creates dim lighting, narrow walkways and ceiling.

Beside the architecture and the smiling faces, the highlight of Bayon is undoubtedly the bas-reliefs. The bas-reliefs on the inner gallery are mainly mythical scenes, whereas those on the outer gallery are mainly mythical scenes, whereas those on the outer gallery are a marked departure from anything previously seen at Angkor. They are unique and contain genre scenes of everyday life-markets, fishing, festivals with cockfights and jugglers and so on-and historical scenes with battles and processions. The bas-reliefs are more deeply carved than at Angkor Wat, but the representation is less stylized. The scenes are presented mostly in two or three horizontal panels. The lower one, which an unawareness of the laws of perspective, shows the foreground, whereas the upper tier presents scenes of the horizon .They both exhibit a wealth of creativity. Descriptions of the bas-reliefs in this guide follow the normal route for viewing the Bayon. They begin in the middle of the east gallery and continue clock-wise. Visitors should keep the monument on their right.

Preh Ngok

Preh Ngokis north of the Bayon. It features a large sandstone statue of the Buddha sitting crossed leg with its eyes open only slightly. From the 13th to 15th centuries, it was one of the Buddhist temples in Angkor area.

Preh Ang Kork Thlork

Preh Ang Kork Thlork or Wat Kork Thok is located west of Bayon temple. According Khmer legend, Kork Thlork was the first name of Cambodia. An Indian man named Preh Thaongwas banished from his country. He threw a Javelin to determine where he would live. His javelin landed on Kork Thlok Island. So he went to the island, where he met Neang Neak. Whom he married. Neang Neak’s father, a sea naga King, inspired the sea and created a country that is known today as Cambodia.

Baphuon TempleSiem-Reap-10

Baphuontemple is west of the road the Dei Chhnang Gate and near the Bayon temple.The temple was built on the 11th century, around 1060, by King Udayadityavarman II (AD 1050-1066), dedicating to Brahmanism. A highlight of the temple is the bas-relief, which differ from most others as they are vignettes carved in small stone squares set one above the other on the temple walls, similar to tiling. Unfortunately few of these are visible because of the poor state of the temple.

Baphuon is a single temple-mountain sanctuary situated on a high base symbolizing Mount Meru. A rectangular sandstone wall measuring 425 by 125 meter encloses the temple a Special feature is the 200 meters long elevated eastern approach supported by three rows of short, round columns forming a bridge to the main temple. Originally, a central tower shrine with four porches crowned the peak. But it collapsed long ago. The first, second and third levels are surrounded by concentric sandstone galleries.

Kok refer to a high place that cannot be flooded. Thork is a kind of edible fruit.

The temple was originally called Treiphuveakchonamony and later was known as Phouvan and then Phuon. The world Treiphouvan means someone who controls the three worlds. Cambodians usually call the temple Baphuon. The world Puon in English means to hide.

Phimeanakas TempleSiem-Reap-20

Phimeanakas temple is south of Baphuon temple, within the confines of the Royal Palace. The temple was built in the late 10th and early 11th centuries by three different Kings-King Rajendravarman,King Jayavarman Vand King Rajendravarman.It was the temple where the king worshipped. The temple was originally known as Hemasrngagiri which means gold. It must originally have been crowned with a golden pinnacle, as Chinese emissary Zhou Daguandescribed it as the tower of Gold. It is small compared to others, but, even so, it has appeal and is situated in idyllic surroundings.

The Single sanctuary stands on the base with three laterite tiers and is approached by four steep stairways, one on each side. These stairways are framed by walls with six projections-two per step-decorated with lions. Elephants one stood on sandstone pedestals in the corners of the base, but, today, they are mostly broken.

This temple is associated with a legend that tells of a gold tower inside the royal palace of Angkor the Great, where a serpent-spirit with nine heads lived. The spirit appeared to the khmer king disguised as a woman and the king had to sleep with her every night in the tower before he join his wived and concubines in another part of palace. If the king missed even one night it was believed he would die. In this way the royal lineage of the khmers was perpetuated.

The aerial palce. The name Phimeanakas is derived from a Sanskrit word Vimeanakas which means the palace in the air or floating temple. The King. Akas means the sky or a space the wind blows through.

A Chinese envoy of the Mongol Empire who lived at Angkor for a year in the late 13th century.

To the north of Phimeanakas, there are two ponds that were part of the Royal Palace compound. The smaller and deeper pond, known as Srah Srei or the women’s bath, which the other larger pond known as Srah Pros or the men’s bath.

Royal Palace

Royal Palace is situated at the heart of the city of Angkor Thom, the Royal Palace area is distinguished by two terraces that parallel the road. Evidence of the Royal Palace itself is illusive because only the stone substructure remains. Like much of Angkor Thom. The residences of the king, and those who worked in the palace, were built of wood and have disintegrated, leaving no traces.

Terrace of the Elephants

The terrace of the Elephantsis located directly in front of the east gopura of the Royal Palace rampart. The terrace was built in late 12th century by King Jayavarman VII. One of the main attractions of the terrace is the façade decade decorated with elephants and their riders depicted in profile. The elephants and their riders depicted in profile. The elephants are using their trunks to hunt and fight while tigers claw at them.

The Terrace of the Elephants extends over 300 meters long from the Baphuon to the Terrace of the leper king. It has three main platforms and two subsidiary ones. The south stairway is framed with three headed elephants gathering lotus flowers with their trunks which form columns. The central stairway is decorated by lions and garudas in bas-reliefs in a stance of support for the stairway. Several projections above are marked by lions and naga balustrades with garudas flanking the dais. The terrace has two levels one of which is square and another which has a gaggle of sacred geese carved along its base. It is likely that these platforms originally formed the based for wooden pavilions which were highlighted with gold.Siem-Reap-11

At the northern end of the platform behind the outer wall, a large horse with five head scalped in high relief stands on each site at the base of the inner retaining wall. The horse is an exceptional piece of sculpture, lively and remarkably worked. It is the horse of a king, as indicated by the tiered umbrellas over his head; it is surrounding by Apsaras and menacing demons armed with sticks in pursuit of several people bearing terrified expressions. Some believe this is a representation of Avalokiteshvara in the form of the divine horse Balaha.

Terrace of the leper King

The terrace of the leper king is located on the way from the Bayon temple of the Elephants. It was built in late 12 century by King Jayavarman VII. The curious name of this terrace refers to a statue of the leper king that is on the platform of the terrace. The named figure is depicted in a seated position with his right knee raised. Today statue is a copy. The original is in the National Museum in Phnom Penh.

Who was the Leper King? Mystery and uncertainly surround the original of the name. The Long-held theory that king Jayavarman VII was leper and that is why he built so many hospitals throughout the empire has no historical support whatsoever. Some historians think the figure represents Kubera, god of weath, or Yasovarman I, both of whom were allegedly lepers. Another idea is based on an inscription that appears on the statue in characters of the 14 or 15 centuries which may be translated as the equivalent of the assessor of Yama, god of death or of judgment. Yet another theory suggests that the leper king statue got it name because of the lichen which grown on it. The position of the hand now missing, also suggests it was holding something.

The terrace of leper king is supported by a base 25 meters on each side and 6 meters high. The slides of the laterite base are faced in sandstone and decorated with bas-reliefs divided into seven horizontal registers. The exterior wall contain mythical beings-nagas, garudas, and giant with multiple arms, carriers of swords and clubs, and seated women with naked torsos and triangular coiffures with small flaming discs-adorn the walls of the terrace. The interior wall is remarkable condition. The deeply carved sense are similar to those on the exterior and include a low frieze of fish, elephants and the vertical representation of a river.

Tep Pranom temple

Tep Pranom is located northwest of the terrace of the leper king. The temple was built in the region of king Yasovarman I. Part of the temple were built different times ranging from the late 9 to 13 centuries. The site was originally a Buddhist monastery associated with King Yasovarman in the last 9 century.

The entrance to the temple is marked by a laterite cause way bordered by double boundary stones at the corners and a cruciform terrace. The sandstones walls of the base of the terrace have a molded edging. Two lions preceded the walls and are in 13 century art style. The Naga balustrades are probably 12 century, whereas the two lions preceding the terrace at the east are Bayon style. Tep Pranom once housed a statue of a kneeling Buddha on a lotus pedestal with a molded base and coasted in sandstone, called tep Pranom, but the statue is no longer there.

In addition, a hermitage built in the 9 centurty during the region of king Yasovarman can be found south of Yasodharatataka, East Baray. The statue and the hermitage are an indication that Buddhism had already been introduced to Cambodia by the time.

Palilay Temple

Palilay temple is located north of Phineanakas temple and behind Tep Pranom. The temple was built in the 12 century by King Jayavarman VII’s father, King Dharanindravarman (AD 1150-1160), who was a Buddhist. The temple’s lintels and pediments lying on the ground afford a rare opportunity to see relief at eye level. Many depict Buddhist scenes with Brahmanism divinities.

Only the central sanctuary remains intact. The sandstone tower opens on four sides, each one with a porch. The tower stands on a base with three tiers intercepted and a truncated pyramid forms a cone which is filled with reused stones. The principle feature of interest at this temple is the Buddhist scenes on the frontons. They are some of the few that escaped defacement in the 15 century. The scenes depicted are: east, a reclining Buddha reaching nirvana; south, a seated Buddha, which is especially beautiful in the mid-morning sun; north, a standing Buddha with his hand resting on an elephant.

Preah Pithu TempleSiem-Reap-12

Preah Pithu is a group of temple located northeast of the Terrace of the Leper King. Studies of their style indicate that all except one are Brahman temple built during the 12 century by King Suryavarman II. The lone Buddhist temple, built sometime between the 13 and 16 centuries, has many Buddha bas-reliefs and other signs related to Buddhism.

The word Pallilay is derived from Pallyaka, the name of the forest where the Buddha lived. The local people believe that when Buddha lived in the forest, he was served by an elephant named Palilay.

Posthumous name: Paramanishkalapada.

Acoording to the khmer dictionary, the word Preah Pithu or Vithu is the name of a Bodhisattva in Vithu cheadok, Satra Preh Pithu or the preah Pithu story (called Preah Pithu or Vithu Bandit).

Most of the structures are in poor condition, but their bases remain and, from the evidence, the temples were of excellent quality in design, workmanship and decoration. Preh Pithu temples consists of two cruciform terraces and five sanctuaries situated in seemingly random order amongst ramparts, moats and ponds. All the shrines are square with false door, stand on a raised platform and are oriented to the east.

Suor Proat Temple

Suor Prat temple is located at the beginning of the road leading to the victory Gate, in front of the Royal Palace. The temple was built in the late 12 century by King Jayavarman VII and features a row of 12 square laterite and sandstone towers, six on one either side of the road leading to be Victory Gate.

The two towers closest to the road are set back slightly from the others. The towers have an unusual feature of windows with balusters on three sides. Entrance porches open toward the west onto the upper one there is a cylindrical vault with two frontons. The frames, bays and lintels were made of sandstone.

According to a Cambodian legend, the towers served as anchoring places for ropes which stretched from one to another for acrobats performing at festivals, while the king observed the performances from one of the terraces. This activity is reflected in the name of the towers. Zhou Danguan wrote about the entirely different purpose of the towers in describing a method of setting disputes between men. Some think that they may have served as alter for each province on the occasion of taking the oath of loyalty to the king.

At the other time, this temple was also called Neang Dopi temple because of its 12 towers, as in the tale of Neang Dopi of the story of Puthisen Neang Kangrei.

North and South Kliang Temple

The North and West Klaing are located behind Sour Proat temple are facing the Terraces of the Elephants and the Leper King. These sandstone temples were built in the late 10 and early 11 centuries by King Jayavarman V and King Suryavarman I.

The temple consist of a pair of large sandstones façade that look quite grand against a jungle background. They are similar in time, layout, style and decoration, although inscription suggest that the south Klaing was built slightly later than the north one. Some scholars believe the name storehouse is inappropriate for these temples and suggest they may habe been reception halls for receiving foreign dignitaries.

The workmanship of the architecture and decoration of North Kliang is more carefully executed than that of the South Klaing. To the rear of the North Kliang there is a laterite wall with high level horizontal windows which encloses smaller halls in the courtyard. The long rectangular structure of South Klaing, however, is unfinished, but it stands on a molded platform. The interior decoration is limited to a frieze under the cornice.

Vihear Prampi Lveng

Vihear Prampi Lveng is south of the Victory Gate. Originally, the temple had a statue of Buddha Protected by naga, but the statue was removed and later discovered 1933 at the Bayon temple. In 1935, King Sisowath Monivong returned the statue to Vihear Prampi Lveng. The temple was given its name because there are seven sections from the entrance to the place where the statue is kept.

Storehouse According to local people, the south Klaing is located south of the victory Gate, and the North Klaing is north of the Victory Gate.

Mongkul Leat Temple

Mongkul Leat temple is in the forest, about 900 meters south of the Victory Gate. This sandstone temple was built between the late13 and early 14 centuries. According the temple inscription, the temple was dedicated to a Braman named Chey Mongkul Leat and to his mother. Chey Mongkul Leat was a teacher of King Krintravarman.

Wat Tang Tok

Wat Tang Lok is located north of the victory Gate and east of Suor Proat temple. Tang Tok is a royal term that refers to occasions when the King prepares an exhibition of handicrafts or agricultural products for the people, known for many year by local people as Wat Tang Tok, the name of the temple has been changed to Preah Ang Sang Tuk by the Angkor conservative group, according to the monk head of the pagoda, he did not know the reason for the change.

Top Temple

Top temple is located west of Bayon temple, midway to Takao Gate. The temple is made of sandstone and faces east. The lintel and pillars of south door made of pink sandstone in the 10 century was influenced by the style of Banteay Srei. This temple was first a place of worship for Brahmans and later by Buddhists. Today the world Top can be used in Khmer Language to refer to something small, low or in a small group.

Wat Preh Indra Tep

Wat Preah Indra Tep is a Buddhist temple located south of Bayon temple. Preah Indra Tep is a name of Preah Indra.

Temple at Vong Toch (Small Circuit)

The temple at Vong Toch include the temples along the road from the Victory Gate to the East Gate of Angkor Wat.

Thomanon Temple

Thomanon temple is about 500 meters east of the Victory Gate. A temple dedicated to Brahmanism, it was built in the late 11 and early 12 centuries by King Suryavarman II. The temple is rectangular in plan with a sanctuary opening to the east, a moat and a rampart with two gopuras, one on the east and another on the west, and one libray near the south-east of the wall. Only traced of a laterite base of the wall remain.

Chao Say Tevada Temple

Chao Say Teveda temple is south of Thomanon temple. The temple was built in the late 11 and early 12 centuries by King Suryavarman II, dedicating to Brahmanism. Chao Say Teveda and Thomanon temples are two small monuments framed by the jungle that stand across the road from each other. Because of similities in plan and form they are often referred to as the brother-sister temple. Chao Say Teveda has deteriorated more than Thomanon.

Ta Keo TempleSiem-Reap-21

Ta Keo temple is located east of Thomanon and Chao Say Tevoda on the east bank of Stung Siem Reap. The temple was built in the late 10 to early 12 centuries by King Jayavarman V and Suryavarman I, Dedicating to Shiv a Brahmanism. Had it been finished, Ta Keo, undoubtedly, would have been one of the finest temple of Angkor.

The temple rise to a height of 22 meters to the sky, giving an impression of strength and power. An innovation at Ta Keo is a porch at each cardinal point on the five towers pf the top level. A gallery was situated on a second base and had a roof of brick which is now destroyed. Enormous blocks of feldsparthic wacke-a very hard to carve, greenish-grey sandstone-were cut to a regular size and placed in position. This absence of decoration give it simplicity of design that separates it from other temples.

Ta Keo temple is a replica of Mount Meru with a rectangular plan and five square towers arranged in a quincunx, standing majestically on a finely molded three-tiered pedestal that is 12 meters high. Long rectangular halls on the east side of the platform open to the west. The upper platform is square and stands on three diminished tiers with stairways on each side. Most of the space on the upper level is occupied by the five towers, all unfinished, opening to the four cardinal points. The central sanctuary dominates the layout which is given future importance by the development of porches.

Chapel of the hospital

The chapel of the hospital is west of Ta Keo temple and Spean Thma, on the west side of the road just over the bridge across Stung Siem Reap. The chapel was built in the late 12 century by King Jayavarman VII. An inscription found in the area confirms the identity of this site as one of the chapels of the 102 hospitals built by the King. The central sanctuary is cruciform-shaped opening to east with false door on the other three sides. Female divinities adorn the exterior and a scroll surrounds the base of the tower. The pediments are decorated with images of the Buddha.

Spean Thma

Spean Tham is about 100 meters west of Ta Keo temple. It is a bridge constructed of reused blocks of sandstone of varying shapes and sizes, which suggests it was built to replace an earlier bridge. The bridge is supported on massive pillars, the opening between them spanned by narrow corbelled arches. Reportedly, there are traces of 14 arches.

Taney Temple

Taney temple is located in the forest, about 800 meters east of Ta Keo temple. It is accessible by small truck or vehicle. The temple was built in the late 12 century by King Jayavarmann VII. The original name of the templke is not known, but according to the local people, the name may have come from an old man named Ney who cared for the temple. This explanation is plausible, because most of the temple at Angkor are not called by their original names.

Top Temple

Top temple is located in the forest northwest of Takeo temple near Ta Prohm temple. Like Ta Keo temple, Top Temple is constructed of large sandstones.

Ta Prohm Temple

Ta Prohm temple is located about 1 kilometer east of the Victory Gate, southeast of Ta Keo temple, Its rampart is near the northwest corner of the rampart of Banteay Kdet temple. The temple was built in AD 1186 by King Jayavarman VII, dedicating to his mother. Shrouded in jungle, Ta Prohm temple is ethereal in aspect and conjures up a romantic aura, trunks of tree twist amongst stone pillars. Fig, bayan and Kapok trees spread their gigantic roots over, under and in between the stones, probing walls and terraces apart, as their branches and leaves interwine to form a roof above the structures.

The Sangkrit inscription on stone tells something about its size and function. Ta Prohm owned 3,140 villages. It took 79,365 people to maintain the temple including 18 high priests, 2,740 official, 2,202 assistants and 615 dancers. Among the property belonging to the temples was a set of golden dishes weighing more than 500 kilograms, 35 diamonds, 40,620 peals, 4,540 precious stones, 876 veils from China, 512 silk beds and 523 parasols.

The monastic complex of Ta Prohm is a series of long, low building standing on one level connected with passages and concentric galleries framing the main sanctuary. A rectangular, laterite wall, which is 700 by 1,000 meters enclose the entire complex. The east entrance is signaled by gopura in the outer rampart of the temple. There is a sandstone hall just north of the gopura known as the hall of dancer which is distinguished by large, square pillars. The central sanctuary itself is easy to miss and stands out because of its absence of decoration. The stone has been hammered, possibly to prepare it for covering stucco and gilding, which has since fallen off. This accounts for the plainness of the walls of this important shrine. Evenly spaced holes on the inner walls of the central sanctuary suggest they were originally covered with metal sheets.

Banteay Kdey TempleSiem-Reap-13

Banteay Kdey temple is located southeast of Ta Prohm. The temple was built in the latter half of the 12 and early 13 centuries by King Jayavarman VII. The temple is similar in art and architecture of Ta Prohm, but it is smaller and less complex. It is unknown to who this temple was dedicated as the inscription stone has never been found.

According to archaeologists, the original basic plan of the temple including a central sanctuary, a surrounding gallery and a passageway connected to another gallery. A moat enclosed the temple, another rampart which is 700 by 500 meters is made of laterite and has four gopuras in the Bayon style, each with four face looking in the cardinal directions, and gapurta placed at the corners of the each gopura, a favorite design of King Jayavarman VII. These gopuras are of the same style as those at Ta Prohm.

Research conducted by the University of Sofia has indicated that this temple was built on another other order temple, as evidenced by a foundation base found under Banteay Kdey temple, Archeologists believe the foundation may be related to Kod village during the reign of King Jayavarman II.

Srah Srang

Srah Srang is located face to face with Banteay Kdey temple. It, too, was built in late 12 century by King Jayavarman VII. It is a large lake which is 700 by 300 meters with an elegant lading terrace of superb proportion and scale. It is pleasant spot to sit and look out over the surrounding plain. Srah Srang always has water and is surrounded by greenery. It is built of laterite with sandstone moldings.

The platform is of cruciform shape with naga balustrades flanked by two lions. At the front there is an enormous garuda riding a three-headed naga. At the back this is a mythical creature comprising a three-headed naga, the lower portion of a garuda and a stylized tail decorated with small naga heads. The body of the naga rests on a dais supported by mythical monsters.

Kodku Temple

Kodku temple is located in Rohal village, west of North Srah Srang village, each of Ta prohm and north of Banteay Kdey temple. Shrouded in jungle, the temple features three brick tower that face east. According to the inscription discovered in 1930, the temple was originallu built in the 9 century, during regin of King Jayavarman II. It was later reconstructed in the 10 century, during the reign of King Rajendravarman.

Kravan Temple

Kranvan temple is located east of Angkor Wat and south of Banteay Kdei. The temple was built in 921 during the reign of King Harshavarman I (AD 910-923), dedicating to Vishnu Brahmanism. It may have been built by high court officials. Although this temple looks small and somewhat undistinguished from the outside, it contains some remarkable brick scuptures on its interior walls which stand alone as unique example in Khmer art. The interior of two of the towers have sculptures depicting Vishnu and his consort, Lakshmi; the scene in the central tower is the most impressive, but both are exceptional in stature and quality of workmanship. The five brick towers are in a row on one plat form which is decorated with carved, sandstone, lintels and columns. All of the towers open to the east.

Batchum Temple

Batchum temple is located about 300 kilometers south of Srah Srang. It is accessible by Beung Mealir ancient road, which is located north of Kravan village. Constructed of brick, the temple has three towers that face east. According to the inscription the temple has built ny a Buddhist officer named Kavey Treanrimthon during the reign of Rajendravarman, who crowned in AD 944. According to the inscription written in AD 953, the temple was originally called Saok Takrum. It is now called Batchum.

Temples at Vong Thom (Grand circuit)

The temple at Vong Thom include the temples along the road from Srah Srong to Dey Chhang Gate.

Preh Rup Temple

Preh Rup temple is about 2 kilometers northeast of Srah Srang and about 500 meters south of the East Baray. The temple was built in 961 during the reign of King Rajemdravarman, dedicating to Shiva Brahmanism. The boldness of the architectural design is superb and gives the temple fine balance, scale and proportion. The temple is close in style to the East Melon, although it was built several years later. It is a temple-mountain symbolizing Mount Meru.

Up until now, Cambodians regards this temple as having funerary association, but its true function is uncertain.

Nevertheless, in which the name Pre Rup recalls one of the rituals of cremation, in which the sihaouette of the body of the deceased, outlined with its ashes, is successively represented according to different orientations. Some archaeologists believe that the large vat located at the base of the east stairway to the central area was used at cremations.

Constructed of laterite with brick towers, the plan is square and comprises two ramparts with gopuras placed centrally in each wall. A platform of three narrow tiers serves as a pedestal for five towers, which are set out in quincunx-one in each corner and one in the center. The outer ramparts is 127 by 116 meters. Within the out laterite rampart there are two groups share a common base. Long halls are placed between the two ramparts. In the northeast corner there is a curious small square building built of large blocks of laterite and open on all four sides. The inscription describing the foundation of the temple was found near this building.

On the left and right slides of the east gopura of the second rampart there are libraries with high towers. They scheltered carved stories with motifs of the nine planets and the seven ascetics. In the center there is a vat between two rows of sandstone pillars. This platform was more likely to have been a base for a wooden structure or a platform for Shiva’s mount Nandi.

Top Temple

Top temple is located about 500 meters south of Pre Rup temple and north of Bor Em village. According to old villagers, particularly those in Pradak commune, this temple was originally called Damkol Sob, as related to the story of King Trasok Paem.

Leang Neang Temple

Leak Neang temple is located near the northwest part of Pre Rup temple, about 100 meters east of the entrance to Ta Prey village. Constructed of brick, the temple faces east. It was built in the second half of the 10 century in AD 960.

East Mebon Temple

East Mebon temple is about 500 meters northeast of Pre Rup temple, the temple was built in AD 952 by King Rajendravarman. The temple is similar to Pre Rup in plan, construction and decoration. A major difference, however, is that the east Mebon once stood on a small island in the middle of Yasodharataka (the East Baray). The only access was by boat to one of the four landing platforms, situated at the mid points on each of the four sides of the temple. The decoration on the lintels of the temple is superior in quality of workmanship and composition to that of Pre Rup. The motifs on the false doors, with small mythical figures frolic-king amongst foliage, are particularly fine.

Ta Som Temple

Ta Som temple is located east of Neak Pean. It was built in early 13 century by King Jayavarman VII, dedicating to his father. A significant feature of Ta Som is the growth of a huge ficus three on the east gopura, which provides a dramatic example of nature and art entwined. The temple is a single shrine on one level surround by three laterite ramparts. The superstructure are carved with four faced. The main tower is cruciform shaped with four porches.

Kraol Ko Temple

Kraol Ko temple is located north of Neak Pean about 900 meters off the right side of the road. This temple was built in late 12 century by King Jayavarman VII. The main point of interest of the temple is the frontons on the ground. Two outstanding example depict a Bodhisatta Avalokiteshvara standing on the lotus, franked by devotees, and a strongly modeled scene of Krishna lifting Mount Govardhana Avalokiteshvara to shelter the shepherds. The temple is a single tower surrounded by tow laterite ramparts with a gopura at the east and a moat enclosing it with steps leading down to the water. A library built of laterite and sandstone opening to the south is on the left of the interior courtyard. The central sanctuary stands on cruciform terrace.

Neak Pean Temple

Neak Pean temple is located east of Preah Khan and about 300 meters off the road. The temple is in the center of Jayatataka or Northern Baray and placed on the same axis as Preah Khan, It was built in the second half of the 12, century by King Jayavarman VII. The temple seems to have served as a place where pilgrims could go and take the waters, both physically and symbolically-the khmer equivalent of a spa.

The central pond is a replica of Lake Anavatapta in the Himalayas, situated at the top of the universe, which gives birth to the four great rivers of the earth. These rivers are represented at Neak Pean by sculpted gargoles corresponding to the four cardinal points. Neak Pean was probadly consecrated to the Buddha coming to the glory of enlightenment.

Neak Pean temple is set in a large, square, man-made pond which is 70 meters square bordered by steps and surrounded by four smaller square pounds. A small circular island, with a steeped base of seven laterite tiers, is in the center of the large square pond, and form the base for shrine dedicated to Avalokitshavara. Small elephats sculpted in the round originally stood on the four corners of the pond.Siem-Reap-22

The bodies of two nagas encircle the base of the island and their tails entwine on the west side which give the temple name. The heads of the nagas are separated to allow passage on the east. A blooming lotus surrounds the top of the platform, while lotus petals decorate the base. The central sanctuary is cruciform shaped, stands on the two recessed levels, opens to the east and is crowned with a lotus. The three other false doors are decorated with large image of Avalokiteshvara. The fronton depict episodes of the life of the Buddha-the cutting of the hair ( east ), the great departure ( north), Buddha in meditation protected by a naga ( west).

The principal feature in the pond of the central sanctuary is a three-dimensional sculpted horse swimming towards the east with figures clinging to its sides. The horse, Balaha, is a manifestation of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, who has transformed himself into a horse to rescue Simhala, a merchant, and his companions of misfortune. They were shipwrecked on an island off Sri Lanka and snatched by female Ogresses. The victims are holding on the horse’s tail in the hope of being carried ashore safely.

There are four small chambers which have vaulted roofs and back onto the main pond, then open onto four small ponds with steps leading to the water. The interior of the vault is decorated with panels of lotus and a central waterspout in the form of an animal or human in the centre. The four building served a ceremonial function, where pilgrims could absolve themselves of their sins. They anointed themselves with lustral water, which flowed from the spout connected to the central pond. Each water spout is different – elephant head (north), human head (east), lion (south) and horse (west). The human head is of exceptionally fine quality workmanship and was coined the Lord of Men.

Preah Khan TempleSiem-Reap-14

Preah Khan temple is located 2 kilometres north-east of Angkor Thom on the Grand Circuit. The temple was built in the second half of the 12th century in AD 1191 by king Jayavarman VII, dedicating to his father Dharanindravaramn. The Buddhist complex covers 56 hectares served as the nucleus of a group that includes Neak Pean and Ta Som, located 4 kilometres long Jayatataka Baray- the last of the great re-servers to be built in Angkor. The inscription indicates that Preah Khan was built on the battle site where King Jayavarman VII finally defeated the chams. In those days it was known as Nagarajayacri which mean the city of Preah Khan.

Four concentric ramparts subdivide Preah Khan. The outer or fourth wall, which is encircled by a wide moat, today encloses a large tract of jungle, formerly the living quarters of the monks, students and attendants of Preah Khan. The second rampart delineated the principle religious compound of about four hectares within which there is a dense concentration of temple and shrines. The central complex is Buddhist. The northern and western sectors are dedicated to Brahmanism- Vishnu (west) and Shiva (north), whilst the southern sector is a place of ancestor worship. The eastern sector forms the grand entrance to the central shrine.

A place for a king located near Preah khan temple is called Veal Reacheak or Preah Reachea Dak. It is 1,500 meters long and 1,200 meters wide. Nearby about 700 meters north of Preah Khan temple along the road to Angkor Thom district is another small temple called Ptu. The temple was made of laterite.

Prey Temple

Prey temple is located on the right of the road, about 40 meters from the northwest corner of Preah Khan temple. The temple made of sandstone, faces east. It was built in late 12th and early 13th centuries by King Jayavarman VII. The word Prey is used for many temple built in the forests. The example, there is a temple west of the Angkor Krao village that is also called prey temple, and another temple south of East Baray, near Banteay Samre, is called Prey Prasat. Many remple inscriptions use the world Verey. The means the same as Prey.

Banteay Prey Temple

Banteay Prey temple is located about 100 meters north of Prey Temple. The temple was built about the same time as Prey temple, and the two temple share a similar design. The difference is, Banteay Prey has a ramparts are characteristic of temples called Banteay.

Kraol Romeas

Kraol Romeas temple is located in Bradak commune, OTo teung village north of the East Baray about 5OO meters north of the Dei Chhang Gate. This temple is made of sandstone and has a tower that faces east. The temple was built in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, during the reign of King Jayavarman VII. This temple is built on square lowland south of Angkor Thom moat.

Other temple

Prey Prasat Temple

Prey Prasat temple is located about 800 meters southwest of the Angkor Thom rampart and west of Angkor Krao village. The sandstone temple faces east. Its architecture and carving suggest that it was built in Bayon style during the reign Of King Jayavarman VII. The name prey prasat refers to a temple that is covered by or surrounded by forest. People living in Angkor Krao village also call it Kork Parsat.

Banteay Thom Temple

Bantey Thom temple is located about 2 kilometres north of Angkor Krao village. It is made of sandstone and has three towers that face east. Like Prey Prasat, its carving and decoration suggest that Banteay Thom was built during the reign of Jayavarman VII. The name Banteay Thom refers to a temple surrounded by a great rampart. The rampart, made of laterite, is 130 meters long and 3 meters high. Inside this temple is another gallery surrounded by a large moat.

Tur Temple

Tur temple is northeast of East Baray. It has two brick towers that face east and an inscription about the natural irrigation in Sanskrit. Local people call this temple Tur. This place once was a dam to hold back water that flowed from Phnom Kulen. The dam was closed in 1975. There is a Sanskrit inscription tells about the irrigation.

West Temple

West Baray is the largest man-made body of water at Angkor. Visitor can hire a boat to take them to the island in the middle where West Mebon Temple once stood. Today, only traces of it remain. But the island is a peasant spot for a picnic or just walking around when water level is low. Alternatively, visitor can also go for a refreshing swim.

As the temple in the middle is in the same style as Baphuon, the baray was probably constructed in the 11th century. The east dyke leads to Ba Kheng temple. Some historian believed that the West Baray was probably constructed in the 11th century. The east dyke leads to Ba Kheng temple. Some historian believed that the West Baray could have been a mooring place for the royal barges as well a reservoir and a place for breeding fish.

The West Baray is a vast man-made lake, surrounded by an earthen levee which forms a dyke. According to legend, the young daughter of a ruler of Angkor was grabbed by an enormous crocodile, which made a large opening in the south dyke of the West Baray that can still be seen today. The crocodile was capture and killed. The princess, still living in its stomach, was rescused.

West Mebon Temple

West Mebon temple is located in the middle of west Baray on an island about 11 kilometres northwest of Siem Reap. The temple was built in the second half of the 11th century by King Suryavarman by a square rampart with three squares, sandstone gopuras and a sanctuary on one level crowned with a lotus. Most towers have collapsed, but the three on the east side are reasonably intact. A sandstone platform at the center is linked to a causeway of laterite and sandstone that leads to the east dyke. The sides of the towers are carved with lively animals set in small squares, a type of decoration found also at the Baphuon.

Ak Yum Temple

Ak Yum Temple is located southern end of the west Baray. The temple was built between 7th and 9th centuries. The inscriptions found on pillars give the date of AD 609, 709 and 1001 from AK Yum temple. Evidence of a lingam and some sacred depository has also been found. During the construction of the west Baray this site was partially buried by the south levee of the Baray.

The temple was built on three levels standing on a platform and enclosed by a brick wall. The monument was built of brick with sandstone bays. Four shrines occupied the corners of the second tier and two others stood on each side, making a total of twelve shrines. The central sanctuary was on the uppermost tier and opened to the east with false doors on the other three sides. Post holes are still visible and were probably used to support a wooden framework for the monument.

Wat Preah Indra Kaosey

Wat Preah Indra Kaosey is located south of Siem Reap provincial town, near the riverside and east of the provincial Department of Angkor Conservation. The brick temple once had three towers that faced east, but only two of the towers are still standing today. Indra Kaosey is the name of Preah Indra, which means harmony and wealthy.

Banteay Samre Temple

Banteay Samre temple is about 400 meters east of East Baray, about 2 kilometres from Pradak village and south of the road from Pardak to Phnom Bok. The temple was built in the middle of the 12th century by King Suryavarman II, dedicating to Vinu Brahmaninsm. The proportions of Banteay Samre are splendid. A unique feature is an interior moat with laterite paving, which when filled with water must have given an ethereal atmosphere to the temple. All of the structures around the moat are on a raised base with horizontal moldings, decorated in some areas with figures framed by lotus buds.

The plan of the temple is roughly square and consists of a laterite rampart with four gopuras. Behind the wall, overlooking the enclosed moat, are gopuras on each side. The central courtyard contains the main sanctuary, which has four wings and is approached by a long hall with libraries on each side. The laterite, paved causeway is 200 meters which leads to the east gopura proving access through the outer rampart of the monument. The causeway, on two levels is bordered on each side bu naga balustrades in the style of Angkor Wat, of which only vestiges remain. The end of the causeway leads to a stairway flanked by crouching lions on short columns. The long and dramatic causeway was probably covered with a wooden roof.

Phnom Bok

Phnom Bok is northeast of East Baray. On this mountain stands a sandstone temple with three towers. It was built in the late 9th and early 10th centuries during the reign of king Yasovaramn I. the mountain is called Phnom Bok, but no one know from where the name came.

Near the foot of Phnom Bok is Top temple. Heavily damaged over time, this temple was made of brick. Its original name was Traplang Chambok. Angkor temple at the foot of Phnom Bok is called Leak Neang. It is made of brick and has three towers, but only one is still good condition. There is also a pond I front of the temple. The temple was once called chhuk Temple, but it now is knowna s Leak Neang Temple.

Banteay Srei Temple

Banteay Srei temple is located in Banteay Srei village Banteay Seri village Banteay Srei commune, Banteay Seri district, about 32 kilometres from Siem Reap provincial town. The temple was built in the second half of the 10th century during the reign of King Rajendravarman and King Jayavarman V, dedicating to Brahmansim.

The special charm of this temple lies in its remarkable state of preservation, small size and excellence of decoration. Some unanimous archaeologists say that Banteay Srei is a precious gem and a jewel in Khmer art.

Banteay Srei, as it is known by local, was originally called Isvarapura, according to inscription. It was built by a Brahmin of royal descent who was spiritual teacher to King Jayavarman V. A special feature of the exquisite decoration was the use of hard pink sandstone (quartz arenite) which enabled the technique of sandalwood carving.

Architectual and decorative feature of Banteay Srey are unique and exceptionally fine. A tapestry-like background of foliage covers the walls of the structures in the central group as if a deliberate attempt has been made to leave no space undecorated.


The architecture is distinguished by triple superimposed frontons with relief narrative scenes carved in the tympanums, terminal motifs on the frames of the arches, and standing figure in the niches. Panel s are decorated with scenes inspired by epic ream Ke and its execution has a liveliness not see in the more formal decoration of earlier temples. Compared to the rest of Angkor this is in miniature. The doors of the central towers are narrow and barely one and a half meters high. The quality of architecture and decoration make up for any shortcomings in size.

The temple is rectangular in plan and enclosed by three ramparts and a moat. Only two of the rampart are visible. The central area of the temple is the most important and the most beautiful. It is surrounded by a brick rampart that has almost entirely collapsed. However there are remnants on either side of the east gopura. There are two libraries on each side of the walkway in the central courtyard opening to the west.

Kbal SpeanSiem-Reap-15

The three shrines arranged side by side in a north to south line standing on a common, low platform and opening to the east. The principle shrine in the central contained Shiva lingam; the shrine on the south was dedicated to Brahma whereas the one on the north honors Vishnu. All three central shrines are of a simple form with a superstructure comprising four tiers, decorated with miniature replicas of the main shrines are guarded by sculptures of mythical figure with human torsos and animal heads kneeling at the base of the stair leading to the entrance, Most of these figures are copies; the originals have been removed for safe-keeping.

Kbal Spean lies 50 kilometres northeast of Siem Reap provincial town or about 18 kilometres from Banteay Srei on a dirt road. It takes from one to two hours to get there from the provincial twon.

The original River of Thousand Lingams, Kbal Spean is an intricately carved riverbeb deep in the foothills of the Cambodian Jungle. Lingams are phallic representations sacred to Brahmanism as symbols of fertility, and hundreds of them are carved into the rock here, as are several carvings of the good and animals above the small waterfall. The area was rediscovered in 1969, when French researcher jean Boulbet was shown the carvings by a local hermit.

A visit to Kbal Spean, a reference to the natural rock bridge, is one of the easiest ways to take a short jungle trek in the Angkor area. It is a 30-minute walk to the carvings through steamy forest and some curious rock formations. It is best to try to visit between July and December, at another times of year the river rapidly dries up. The access to the trail is not permitted after 3:30p, food and drinks are available at the base of the trail.

Beung Mealea Temple

Beung Mealea temple lie at the foot of Phnom Kulen’s eastern extreme, about 70 kilometers from Siem Reap provincial town. It takes two to three hours to get there via either Banteay Srei or Dam Dek on National road 6. It is the most accessible of Angkor’s lost temples, a mirror image of the mighty Angkor Wat, but totally and utterly consumed by the jungle. Constructed by King Suryavarman II (AD1113-1150), the builder of Angkor Wat, nature has triumphed here, and it is hard to get a sense of the monument’s shape amid the daunting ruins.

1,000 Lingams

One thousand are located on the top of the mountain, along Stung Siem Reap. The site features impressive riverbed rock carving includes innumerable scores of yonis and lingams that site on the bottom of a steam from which water flows year around.

Srah Damrey

Srah Domrey or the elephant pond is a collect of giant stone animals guarding this sacred mountain.

Terrace Of the leperKIng

Tarrace of the leper king or Preah learn sdech kunlung is a smooth, volcanic terrace. At the center of the terrace is a small brick temple that has been smashed to pieces. Based on the rock they were found, scientists believe the site might have been a volcano millions of year ago.

Preah Ang Thom

Preah Ang Thom is located on the mountaintop and attracts khmer new year pilgrims during religious festival. Built in the 16th century, it features a large status of the reclining Buddha reaching nirvana. The state is 7.5 meter tall and 8 meter long, carved into a huge stand stone boulder. The site also offers spectacular views across lush jungle. There are two Champa tree at the site, and local people worship there because they believe the site hold grade power. Preah Ang Thom is close to Chhat Ruot, a multilayered umbrella; Pheah Ang Thom Bat Choan Tu, footprints of Buddha; and Peung Chhat, Peung Ryso and Peung, overhanging rocks.

Phnom Kulen Waterfall

Phnom Kulen waterfall father downstream is a good spot to cool off after exploration. It has two levels. The first level is 4 to 6 meter high and 10 to 15 meter wide, depending on whether it is the try or rainy season. The second level is 15 to 20 meter high and 6 to 8 meter wide, depending on the season. Near the waterfall is a small jungle-covered laterite temple called Kraol Romeas temple.


Rolus is the site of an ancient center of khmer civilization known as Hariharalaya located about 12 kilometers from Siem Reap Provincial town. It includes three temple- Preah Kor, Bakong and Lolei. After king Jayavarman II establishedhis capital on phnom kulen in AD 802 inaugurating the Angkor period, soon afterward he move to capital back to Roluos perhaps for a better source of food or for defense purpose. King Jayavarman II died at Rolous in AD 850. It is generally believed that in successors remained there until the capital was moves to Bak Kheng in AD 905

The structure of the Roluos Group is distinguished by tall, square-shaped, brick tower on the low pedestals. They open to the east, with false doors on the other trees sides. A rampart originally enclosed to temple although only traces remain today. The library is a rectangular building with a vaulted roof and frontons. A temple often has two libraries, one on each side the gopura preceding the central sanctuary.

Preah Kor TempleSiem-Reap-16

Preah Kor temple is located between Bakong and Lolei on the western site of the road and to Bakong. The temple was built in 9th century by King Indravarman I(AD 877-889), dedicating to Shiva Brahmanism. It is also a funerary temple built for the king‘s parents, maternal grandparents, and a previous king, Jayavarman II and his wife. Originally square in plan and surrounded by tree ramparts with gopuras, the complex seems small today because of the dilapidated state of the rampart. The outer rampart is 400 by 500 meters square with gopuras on the east and west sides. A small terrace which is largely destroyed preceded the laterite gopura at the east. Long halls or galleries parallel the middle rampart, two each at the east and west, and one each at the northeast and southeast. There are galleries with a porch opening to east on the north and south sides of the walkway. An unusual, square, brick structure stand between the long halls and the gallery at the south. The brick rampart inside has two gopuras at the east and directly opposite on the west.

Three images of Shiva’s mount Nandi are at the east of central area. Although only portions of the bulls remain, their original position can be discerned facing to the temple. The central area consists of brick tower set towards the east in two rows on a low platform. The shrine of Preah ko are built near ground level-a typical feature of khmer temple that are dedicated to ancestors. The central towers are square in plan with a porch on each of the cardinal direction. Each of sex towers of the central group was covered with elaborate stucco.

Bakong Temple

Bakong temple is south of Preah Kor temple. It was also built by king Indravarman I in AD 881, dedicating to Shiva Brahmanism. The temple was the center of Hariharalaya city and was probably the state temple of king Indravarman.

It is a temple-mountain symbolizing the cosmic Mount Meru. Four levels leading to the central sanctuary extend the symbolism, and correspond to the world of mythical beings-nagas, Gouda, rakasas, and yakshas. The fifth and top most level is reserved for the gods-the levels represent the five cosmic level of mount meru. Siem-Reap-17

The temple is enclosed within two separate ramparts. The out rampart measure 900 by 700 meters. It surrounds a moat, and there are causeways on four sides, which are bordered by low naga balustrades. The inner and smaller rampart has a gopura of sand sandstone and laterite in the center of each side of wall. Long hall on each side lie parallel to the eastern wall. They were probably rest houses for visitors. Paris of square-shaped, brick structure at the northeast and southeast come are identified by rows circular hotel and an opening to the west. On each side of the processional way, just beyond the halls, there are two square structures with four doors. The inscription the temple was found in the northern building. Further along the processional way, there are two long sandstones buildings standing parallels on each side and opening on two the causeway. These many have been storehouse or libraries.

The diminishing platforms are square in plant with stairway on all four sides. The central sanctuary is visible from each of all five levels because of the unusual width of the tiers. The sanctuary is square with four tires and a lotus –shaped final. Only the base of the original central sanctuary remains. The upper portion was constructed at a later date, perhaps during the 12th century, which explains the lotus spire that is characteristic of that period.

Lolei Temple

Lolei temple is located north of the main road in the center of baray, close to a modern Buddhist temple. The temple was built in late 9th century in 893 by king yasovanrman I, dedicating to shiva and in memory of the king father. Lolei is worth a visit just for example carving and in scrimption which a visit just for its some considers to be the finest of the roluos group. The temple was originally located in center of a great baray, the Indratataka. According to an inscription found at the temple, the water in pond was for as at the capital of hariharalaya and for irrigating plains in the area.

The temple consists of a double platform rising originally form the baray surrounded by a laterite rampart on all four temple. The four towers appear randomly placed on a raised smaller brick platform. A sandstone channel in the shape of a cross situated in the center of the four towers is a uniform a square pedestal for a lingam. It is speculated that holy water poured over the lingam flowed in the channels. The panels of the false door have multiple figures. The inscriptions on the door frames of these towers are exceptionally fine.

Phnom Krom TempleSiem-Reap-18

Phnom Krom is a 137 meters high hill located about 12 kilometers southwest of Siem Reap at the northern end of the Tonle Sap Lake. Situated on thje hilltop, Phnom Krom temple was built in the late 9 and early 10 centuries by King Yasovarman I, dedicating to Brahmanism trinty-Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma.

The temple is square in plan and consists of the three towers made of sandstone in a row standing on a low rectangular platform. They are oriented in north to south direction. The central shrine is dedicated to Shiva, the northern shrine to Brahma. The upper portions of the towers have collapsed and the facades are dilapidated. The tower are surrounded by a laterite rampart intersected on each side by cruciform gopuras. Originally, three long halls built of laterite, probably rest houses, were located to on the south; one on the north, only base of these remain. Four small, square structures stand in the courtyard in front of the central tower. All four open to the west and have a series of holes in the walls, feature that suggest they may have been used as crematoriums.

Floating village on Tonle Sap

A boat trip on the Tonle Sap is a pleasant from temple roving and gives visitors a chance to see a fishing village, all the way visitors will see the fisherman and their families who live on the water and from the so-called floating commune, Chong Knas, about 15 kilometers from Siem Reap provincial town

The Tonle Sap is the largest permanent freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. As the main source of fishing and agriculture to people living surrounding plain, it has played an important role in Angkor throughout history. Tonle Sap River joined at the phnom penh. The hydrological process that causes the lake to increase in the size during the monsoon maintaining the ecological system of the lake, which include various specifies of the fish and birds.

Cambodian Cultural villageSiem-Reap-19

The Cambodian cultural village is a miniature village that depicts famous or historical building and structures, local custom and praeristictices of all races. The site, which covers 210,000 square meters, is located in Siem Reap provincial town along National road 6 in svay dangkom commune.

There are 12 unique village representing the different cultural heritages and characteristics of 19 races. Tourist can enjoy traditional Asara dance and performances by Cambodian hill tribes. Or they can watch villager demonstrate their stone-cutting, woodcarving, silver smiting and gem-cutting skills.

A wax museum features scenes and figures from history. The museum shows how Angkor Wat temple was built, the lifestyle of the khmers during the zhenla period and the breathtaking human figures with various characteristics and replicas of important historical people.

The site also include fascinating 1/20th scale models of site such as phsar thmey and the royal place in phnom penh and the hill and temple of oudong and full scale models of a variety of Cambodia architecture, including different style of huts and home, hill tribe house, pagoda and mosques. A trip of Cambodian cultural village is a memorable experience.

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